During the impact of an accident, fall or assault, the brain ricochets back and forth within the cranial vault causing bruising, bleeding, and tearing of nerve fibres. Traumatic injuries can involve a specific lobe of the brain or the entire brain itself. Injury to any part of the brain can damage brain functioning and may require cranial surgery in order to save the patient's life.


  • Concussion – This head injury can range in severity from mild to severe but usually, do not cause permanent brain damage. They can affect memory, judgment, reflexes, speech, balance and coordination, but in most cases, fortunately, they are mild and allow for a full recovery.

  • Contusions –These are bruises on the brain, which may cause some functional impairment and is very severe cases, may require surgery.

  • Haematomas – These are blood clots that can arise on the surface or within the substance of your brain due to trauma. The collection of blood that is left behind compresses your brain tissue and causes an increase in intracranial pressure. In some cases, surgery may be needed to drain the blood and relieve the pressure.

  • Haemorrhagic stroke - An artery in the brain bursts, the bleeding causes pressure to build within the skull.

  • Fractures – Any skull fracture will require neurosurgical assessment but may not necessarily require surgery

For Dr. Kolloori, the aim of trauma surgery of the brain is to restore and maintain blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain and to minimize brain swelling and rising intracranial pressure. Any of the above brain injuries may require neurosurgery with aims to remove clotted blood, stop active bleeding in the brain, as well as the repair of skull fractures.